Representation

Reconstruction Republicans feared the return of white Southern power to Congress. This provision reduced the representation in the House for any state that denied black men the right to vote—ensuring that former rebel states would have no more political power in Congress than they were willing to grant their own people. Although rarely debated today, this provision was hotly debated in its time.

Jan 21, 1866
House considers proposal on representation

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed: Provided, That whenever the elective franchise shall be denied or abridged in any State on account of race or color, all persons of such race or color shall be excluded from the basis of representation.

Apr 20, 1866
Joint Committee proposes bundled amendment

No discrimination shall be made by any state, nor by the United States, as to the civil rights of persons because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. From and after [July 4, 1876], no discrimination shall be made . . . as to the enjoyment by classes of persons of the right of suffrage, because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. . . . Debts incurred in aid of insurrection or of war against the Union, and claims of compensation for loss of involuntary service or labor, shall not be paid by any State nor by the United States. Congress shall have power to enforce . . .

May 9, 1866
Joint Committee's resolution considered in House

No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States . . . excluding Indians not taxed. . . Until [July 4, 1870], all persons who voluntarily adhered to the late insurrection . . . . Neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation . . . incurred . . . in aid of insurrection or of war against the United States . . . The Congress shall have power to enforce. . .

Jun 12, 1866
14th Amendment Final Text

Section One: All persons born or naturalized in the United States . . . are citizens of the United States. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. . . Section Two: Representatives shall be apportioned . . . Section Three: No person shall . . . hold any office . . . Section Four: The validity of the public debt . . . Section Five: The Congress shall have power to enforce.